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Classification of Weights and Throws

SPECIFIC RULES FOR HIGHLAND HEAVY THROWING EVENTS

 

                        USE OF IMPLEMENTS

 

                        It shall be the responsibility of the Organizers to provide sufficient implements for the conduct of all events. Any implement, equipment, device, throwing chair, frame, handle or fork, used or brought by any athlete on the field may be used by any other athlete competing, as long as it is approved, deemed legal and safe by the Judge.

 

THROWING IMPLEMENT SPECIFICATIONS AND COMPETITION RULES FOR EVENTS

 

 

                        OPEN STONE (OS)

                            Construction

 

                        There is no standard size or weight of the stone.

 

Standard Weight:

 

 

From the Chair:

 

 

Men
Women

 

Men

Women

 

16 lbs. to 22 lbs.
8 lbs. to 14 lbs.

 

6 lb to 10 or 8 lb to 14 lbs 

The stone must be put with one hand and with the stone remaining against the neck throughout the throw until the release. Any throwing style may be used as long as the rules are followed and the style is deemed safe by the judge. The backline will be drawn 7'-6" from the trig.


 

                           SHOT PUT (Shot)

                            Construction

                            The shot shall be of solid iron, brass, or any metal not softer than brass, or a shell of such metal filled with lead or other material.  It must be spherical in shape and the surface must be smooth.

 

Standard Weight:

 

 

From the Chair:

 

 

 

Men
Women


Men

Women

 

14 lb 16 lbs. 20 lbs. 22 lbs and 24 lbs.
8 lbs. 12 lbs. 14 lb and 16 lbs.

 

8 lbs 12 lbs 14 lbs and 16 lbs

                                   The shot must be put with one hand and with the shot remaining against the neck throughout the throw until the release. Any throwing style may be used as long as the rules are followed and the style is deemed safe by the judge. The backline will be drawn 7'-6" from the trig.

 

 

 BRAEMAR STONE  (BS) 

 

Construction

 

There is no standard size or weight of the stone.

 

Standard Weight:

 

 

From the Chair:

 

Men
Women

 

Men

Women

 

20 lbs. to 26 lbs.
13 lbs. to 18 lbs.

 

8 lbs to 14 lbs or 13 lbs to 18 lbs

 

The same rules apply in the Braemar Stone Put as in the Open Stone Put except there is no approach allowed. The stone must be put from a standing position. Reversing the feet after the release is allowed.


 

 

 

                        SCOTTISH ONE HAND WEIGHTS FOR DISTANCE (LWFD & HWFD)

                            Construction

The weight shall be made of metal not softer than brass, or a shell of such metal filled with lead or other material. but can be of various shapes and sizes including spherical, conical (bullet) or box shaped. The handle can either be attached directly to the weight or attached with a length of chain. The handle may also be of various shapes and thickness such as a ring, triangle or a "D" shape. The total weight of each implement will be 7 lb, 14 lb., 28 lb., 42 lbs. and 56 lbs. The implement shall not measure more than 18" in overall length.

 

Standard Weight:

 

 

 

 

From the Chair:

Men
Women
Master

Men <190 lbs

 

Men

Women

28 lbs. & 56 lbs.
14 lbs. & 28 lbs.
28 lbs. & 42 lbs. or 56 lbs.

14 lbs & 28lbs or 28 lbs. & 42 lbs

 

7 lbs & 14 lbs  or 14 lbs & 28 lbs

The weight will be thrown with one hand only. Any throwing style may be used as long as the rules are followed and the style is deemed safe by the judge. The backline will be drawn 9'-0" from the trig.

 

 

SCOTTISH HAMMERS (HH & LH)

    Construction

The hammer head shall be spherical and made of metal not softer than brass, or a shell of such metal filled with lead or other material. and the shaft shall be of wood, bamboo, rattan or plastic (PVC pipe is used for increased durability). Rattan or plastic is recommended over bamboo or wood. The total weight of each hammer will be 8lbs., 10lbs., 12 lbs., 14 lbs., 16 lbs., and 22 lbs. The length of the hammer will be no longer than 50" in overall length.

 

Standard Weight:

 

 

From the Chair:

Men
Women
 

Men

Women

 

16 lbs. and 22 lbs.
12 lbs. and 16 lbs.


8 lbs. and 12 lbs. or 12 lbs .and 16 lbs.

 

 

The Scottish hammer may be thrown with one or both hands, with the feet in a fixed position. There is no approach allowed in the Scottish hammer throw. The competitor may move the feet after the hammer is released. No back line is drawn for the Scottish hammer throw and sidelined are normally not drawn either. All fouls besides the backline foul still apply.

 

 

SHEAF TOSSING (ST)

                                Construction

The sheaf will be a woven burlap or plastic bag filled with a suitable material such as straw, mulch, or rope. The total weight of the bag shall be *8 lbs., 12 lbs., 16 lbs., and 20 lbs. * indicates implement not yet commercially available

 

Standard Weight:

 

 

 

From the Chair:

 

Men
Women
Master

 

Men

Women

 

20 lbs. (16 lbs. or 20 lbs. for Amateurs)
12 lbs.
16 lbs. or 20 lbs.

 

8 lbs or 12 lbs

 

The sheaf will be thrown over a crossbar for height with a pitchfork. The toss shall be made in any manner desired using a pitchfork with at least two tines.


                           

                          TOSSING THE WEIGHT OVER THE BAR (WOB)

                                Construction

The weight shall be made of metal but can be of various shapes and sizes including spherical, conical (bullet) or box shaped. The handle can either be attached directly to the weight or attached with a length of chain. The handle may also be of various shapes and thickness such as a ring, triangle or a "D" shape. The total weight of each implement will be 14 lb., 28 lb., 42 lbs. and 56 lbs. The implement shall not measure more than 18" in overall length.

 

Standard Weight:

 

 

 

From the Chair:

 

Men
Women
Master

 

Men

Women

 

56 lbs.
28 lbs.
42 lbs. or 56 lbs.

 

14 lbs or 28 lbs

 

The weight will be thrown with one hand only. Any throwing style may be used as long as the rules are followed and the style is deemed safe by the judge.

 

 

TURNING THE CABER
There is no standard size or weight of a caber but the caber should be of a length and weight such that at least half the competitors can turn it. The caber is to be made only of wood. The caber shall be placed upright for the competitor, with the heavy end on top. The attempt begins when the competitor lifts the caber from the ground. If the competitor drops the small end of the caber back to the ground after having picked it up, this shall count as one attempt. It is recommended that a back judge and a side judge be used. The judge may set boundaries if he feels the ground in a certain area is not suitable for the caber to be tossed or to provide safety for the spectators. The competitor may take any length of run they wish and may toss the caber from where they choose, as long as it is within the judge's boundaries. The caber must pass through the vertical position (90 degrees from the ground) in order to count as a turned caber. It is up to the side judge to determine if the caber has passed through it. The "clock face method" of judging shall be used. The caber in a perfect toss will pass through the vertical position and land with the small end pointing directly at 12 o'clock away from the competitor in an imaginary straight line extending from the competitor through the initial landing point and in line with the direction of the run. An overhead view is drawn in Figure 2 below to demonstrate a 12 o'clock toss.

Figure 2

 

A valid throw is when the small end of the caber passes through the vertical position and falls away from the competitor to land within the 180 degree radius between 9 o'clock and 3 o'clock. An overhead view is drawn below in Figure 3 to demonstrate some turned cabers and how to score them.


Figure 3



If the caber lands in a 12 o'clock position pointing away from the competitor but not in a direct line with their run (as when a competitor turns to one side at the last step or two), then the judge must determine the competitor's direction of run and then look through the competitor to the small end of the caber, thus giving a true reading of its relation to the direction of run. The direction of run is determined by the direction in which the competitor runs after having control of the caber. An overhead view is drawn below in Figure 4 to demonstrate a toss such as this.


Figure 4



Once the competitor has started on his run, the judge should pick a point in the horizon to use as a reference point once the toss has been made. The competitor may run in one direction and then stop and change directions as long as they show control over the caber. The caber shall be judged on its landing position, not the position to which it may bounce or roll.


If the caber is not turned by the competitor, then it is the responsibility of the side judge to determine the angle at which the caber was tossed with respect to the 90 degree vertical. The side judge should be perpendicular to the competitor's direction of run in order to make an accurate call. A drawing of a view from the side judge's position is shown below in Figure 5.


Figure 5



Each competitor is allowed three attempts, all of which should be scored and the best of these to be used to determine placing. In the event of a tie then the next best attempt or attempts shall be used to determine placing. The order of placing shall be determined by the nearest to 12 o'clock toss made by a competitor. If the competitor did not turn the caber, then placing shall be determined by the toss closest to the 90 degree vertical.


If after one complete round the caber has not been turned by any competitor and the judge agrees, the caber may be cut. The caber shall be cut from the large end and the amount is to be determined by the judge. This process can be repeated until the caber has been turned. When a qualifying caber is used then any successful turn qualifies the competitor for the next caber.
Ties are broken by comparing the next best attempt for each competitor involved in the tie. The competitor with the next best score places highest. If other ties occur, this process is repeated for all previous attempts.

 

                       

 General Rules for the Stone Puts, Weight Throws for Distance, and Hammer Throws

 

A backline will be drawn the appropriate distance from and parallel to the trig.

 

Sidelines are defined by either drawn or imaginary lines from the edges of the trig to the backline.

 

Both the backline and sidelines are considered to be in the 'fair' part of the throwing area.

 

The competitor will complete the throw under control as decided by the judge or the throw will be ruled a foul.

 

Each competitor will be allowed three throws in the competition, the farthest of which will count for that event.

 

The competitor may stop during the throw and re-start the throw as long as no foul has occurred.

 

The competitor may even leave the throwing area before re-starting if allowed by the judge.

 

Each throw will be measured from a point on the inside-upper edge of the trig closest to where the competitor's plant foot (left foot for a right-handed competitor) landed to the nearest break in the ground made by the implement (not including the handle).

 

Ties will be broken by comparing the next farthest throw for each competitor involved in the tie.

 

The competitor with the farthest of these throws will place highest. If other ties occur, then this process will repeat for all attempts taken.

 

A throw will be a foul if the competitor touches the ground as defined in Figure 1 or any surface of the trig other than the edge facing the throwing area.

 

One of the competitor's feet must always remain in the throwing area either on the ground or in space directly above the throwing area.

 

Figure 1

No part of the competitor will touch

One of the competitor's feet may touch

Any part of competitor may touch as long as he is under control

 

                       

GENERAL RULES FOR HEIGHT EVENTS

Each competitor will be allowed three attempts at each height.

Each competitor may enter the event at any height in the competition.

A competitor may pass any height they choose, but each height attempted must be cleared before attempting the next height. If a competitor has passed a height it is not considered a miss or a make and will not count for or against the competitor.

When a competitor has missed three attempts at one height then he will be eliminated from the competition.

A competitor will not pass individual attempts without also leaving the competition.

All measurements will be made from the ground to the top of the crossbar.

The starting height will be agreed upon by the competitors and the judge with the judge having the final decision.

The bar may be raised by larger increments until most of the competitors are eliminated and then raised by a lesser amount requested by the competitors and agreed to by the judge.

The crossbar may be suspended at both ends or by one end. It may be suspended at both ends by both pulleys and rope attached or rested on pegs attached to the uprights or both. If the implement pulls down the crossbar as it goes over, it is the judge's decision whether the toss will be counted or not. If the crossbar is suspended by resting on pegs ("touch-bar"), then the toss will not be counted if the crossbar is knocked off either peg. The crossbar will remain on the pegs after an attempt until the competitor leaves the throwing area (determined by the judge's discretion).

The crossbar will be 10'-0" in length or shorter.

The center of the implement will go over the bar within the inside of the uprights or the inside of the upright and the end of the bar if only one upright is used.

The implement may touch the crossbar as it goes over.

Ties will be broken by comparing the number of misses at the last height cleared. The competitor with the least amount of misses at that height will place highest. If this number of misses is equal, then the next highest height is then compared and the competitor with the least amount of misses at that height will place highest. If other ties occur, then this process is repeated for each previous height until all places are determined.

                         

 

 RULES GOVERNING CHAIRS FOR THROWING EVENTS

 

                            Any part of the chair including the cushion, used as the seat must not exceed 75cms in height.

 

                        If footrest(s) protrude outside the throwing area, they must not be rotated in or out to permit abnormal placing of one or both feet unless so stated on the Games Classification Card.

                            NOTE:   This does not prevent the uneven placement of the footrests in the vertical (sagittal)

                               plane.

 

                        It will be the responsibility of the competitor that the chair conforms to all the above rules and no event shall be delayed while a competitor makes adjustments to the chair.

 

                        Chairs will be measured when the competitor enters the throwing area.  Chairs which have been examined may be liable to re-examination before or after the event by the official in charge of the event.

 

                        It shall be the responsibility in the first instance, of the official conducting the event to rule on the safety of the chair.

 

                            It should be noted that the "chair" need not be a wheelchair.

 

 

             POSITIONING THE CHAIR

 

                            Only the footrest(s) or any part of the wheel or push rim not touching the side lines may be outside of the fair part of the Throwing area.  Any part of the chair used for propulsion must remain inside the throwing area.

 

For all classes a reasonable time will be permitted for an athlete to place the frame in the throwing area before the commencement of their first trial.  This time shall not normally exceed 2 minutes. 

 

                        THE ORDER OF THE TRIALS

                            The order in which the competitors take their trials shall be drawn by lot.

                            NOTE:   Once called, athletes are allowed to move away from the throwing area in order to continue warm-up.  Should an athlete not answer a call to the throwing area, he may be debarred from any subsequent trials.

 

                        Athletes who stand:  The first trial shall be taken in the order of the draw.  After each completed   event, the competitor who threw first is now placed last in the next event and   all other competitors move up one place. This is repeated after every event.

 

                        THE NUMBER OF TRIALS

Each competitor will be allowed three trials (throws) in the competition, the farthest of which will count for that event. At the competition ground, each competitor may, if possible, have practice trials of two or more at the discretion of the AD and/or Judge. Once their first trial has begun, competitors are not permitted to use the throwing area or ground within the landing area for practice trials.

 

      REQUIREMENTS FOR A VALID THROW FROM THE CHAIR

 

In competition, both the backline and sidelines are considered to be in the 'fair' part of the throwing area.

 

It shall be a foul throw and not allowed to count if the competitor, after he has entered the throwing area or begun to make a throw, touches with any part of his body the ground outside or any part of the holding device outside the vertical plane of the sideline or back line or improperly releases the implement in making any attempt. The competitor will complete the throw under control as decided by the judge or the throw will be ruled a foul.  The athlete's feet may touch the ground, provided they remain inside the throwing area.

                           NOTE: A trig (stop board) is required for all classes.

 

                        DELAYING THE THROW, TOSS OR PUT (TRIAL)

                            A competitor who unreasonably delays making a trial renders himself liable to have that trial disallowed and recorded as a fault.  It is a matter for the Judge to decide having regard to all circumstances, what is an unreasonable delay.  The Judge shall indicate to the competitor that all is ready for the trial to begin, and the period allowed for his trial shall commence from that moment.  If the time allowed elapses once the competitor has started his trial, that trial should not be disallowed. 

                                 NOTE:    The following time should not normally be exceeded for each trial: 1.0 minutes.

 

                        INTERRUPTING A TRIAL

                            Provided that, in the course of a trial the foregoing rules have not been infringed, a competitor may lay his implement down inside the throwing area, and may leave the throwing area (when leaving the throwing area he must do so with the permission of the judge) before returning to a stationary position and beginning a fresh trial.

                            NOTE:   All the moves permitted by this paragraph shall be included in the maximum time for a trial.

 

                        LEAVING THE THROWING AREA

                            The competitor must not leave the throwing area until the implement has touched the ground. 

                            NOTE:   This rule shall be waived for sitting competitors using the approved holding device.

 

                        IMPLEMENT BREAKING

                           If any implement breaks at any time during the course of the throw, it shall not count as a trial, provided   the throw was made in accordance with the rules. If an implement breaks during a competition and cannot be repaired quickly, the round in which it broke should be started over with a new implement being used. If the judge determines that time does not allow for this, then a new implement will be used and the round continued where it left off.

 

DEVICES FOR THE HANDS AND THROWING AIDS

                           No device of any kind, to include the taping of two or more fingers together. No straps or other devices to aid the competitor in holding the implement, which in any way assists a competitor when making a throw, shall not be allowed.  The use of tape on either hand shall not be allowed except in the case of the need to cover an open cut or wound. The tapping of individual fingers or thumb, the wrist and upper arm is allowed for support.

 

                           The use of gloves is allowed, for all event but the stone and shot puts.

 

                        In order to obtain a better grip, competitors are permitted to use a suitable substance on their hands and neck only.

 

                           In order to protect the spine from injury, a competitor may wear a belt of leather or some suitable material.

 

                           No footwear or processes that may aid in increasing the athlete‚€™s height will be worn or used in the events thrown for height.

 

                        In classes F1 to F3 inclusive, an athlete may use strapping on the non-throwing hand and to anchor the hand to the chair.

 

                        RETURNING THE IMPLEMENT

                After a put/throw/toss has been completed, the implement must be carried back to the throwing area and never thrown, tossed, rolled or kicked back.

 

                        MEASUREMENT

                        All measurements must be made with a certified steel or fiberglass tape or bar, and all     implements must be weighed on a Government approved balance.

 

                        Each valid throw shall be marked and measured from the center point on the inside-upper edge of the trig to the nearest break in the ground made by the implement not including the handle.

                           All measurements will be to the nearest centimeter or ¬ľ inch.

 

                        THE MEASUREMENT JUDGE (ELECTRONICS)

                        A measurement Judge shall be appointed when electronic distance measurement is to be used.

                        Before the start of the meet, he will meet the technical staff involved and familiarize himself with the equipment.  Before the event, he will supervise the positioning of the measuring instruments, taking account of the technical requirements given by the technical staff.

                        During the competition, he will remain in overall charge of the operation.

                         He will report to the Field Judge to certify that all the measurements are correct.

                        NOTE:   GIVING ASSISTANCE, ADVICE, OR INFORMATION

                           

                        CREDITING THE BEST THROW/PUT

                            Each competitor shall be credited with the best of all his puts/throws including those achieved in deciding a tie for first place.

 

                        DECIDING A TIE*

                            In those field events where the result is determined by distance, the second best performance of the competitors tying shall decide a tie.  If the tie still remains, the third best and so on.

 

                        ACTION

                            Requirements for a valid throw:

                           

                        LIFTING

                        In classes F1 to F6, during the action of a throw or put, at least one part of the upper leg or buttock must remain in contact with the cushion or seat until the implement is released.

 

                        In class F7 and F8 Sitting, a competitor shall commence a throw/put from a sitting position and if lifting takes place, must keep one foot in contact with the ground inside the throwing aria.  Any part of the chair which is used for leverage must be inside the vertical plane of the ‚€œfair part‚€Ě of the throwing aria.

 

                        HOLDING DEVICE BREAKING

                            If a holding device should break during the execution of a throw, it shall not count as a trial providing it was made in accordance with the rules.  If the competitor thereby loses his balance and commits a foul, it shall not be counted against him.

 

                        EVENTS CONTESTED

A Scottish Heavy Events competition is defined by at least five of the events listed above. If only    five events are used, then no two events will be similar (such as two stones, two weight throws for distance, or two hammers, just as the shot(s) are not be contested if the stone(s) of similar weight are used. The order of events is recommended to be as follows: Stone or Shot Put(s), Weight Throw(s) for Distance, Hammer Throw(s), Caber Tern, Sheaf Toss and Heavy Weight Toss for Height. If the competition is spread over two days, the events should be arranged so that there is equal heavy and light implements thrown on each day (Day One: Open Stone or Light Shot Put,  Heavy Weight for Distance, Light Hammer and Caber Tern. Day Two: Braemar Stone or Heavy Shot Put, Light Weight for Distance, Heavy Hammer, Sheaf Toss and Heavy Weight Toss for Height.

 

                        FAILING TO START AN EVENT

                            Any athlete failing to start or make a trial in one of the five or more events of the over all competition shall not be allowed to take part in the following event but shall be considered to have abandoned the competition.  The competitor shall not therefore figure in the final result placing. At the discretion of the judge, if the competitor does not attempt to compete in all the events then the competitor will not receive points or awards for the individual events or the overall competition.

 

                        INTERVAL BETWEEN EVENTS

                            At the discretion of the Judge, there shall be, whenever possible, an interval of at least 30 minutes between the time one event starts and the next event begins, for any individual athlete.

 

                        VARIATION TO THE RULES

                            The Athletics Director or Organizer of each Scottish Heavy Events competition will post rules for each event constituting the competition will apply. In each of the throwing events, each competitor shall be allowed three trials only.

                           

                        SCORING POINTS

                            The points for an event are usually awarded in one of three ways:

                            One point method with the competitor with the lest points wins.

                            One point method with competitor with the most points wins.

                            The Decathlon scoring systems.

 

The one point scoring system is recommended. Each competitor is awarded points by over all placing in each event. For example if there are five computers, ether 1 point or 5 points will be awarded for First place in each event. To determine the overall champion the total amount of points accumulated throughout the competition will be added together and the competitor with the most or fewest point, whichever the case, will be declared the over all winner.

 

Deciding a tie

If there is a tie for first place overall then the winner will be the competitor with the most first places in the individual events, If this does not produce a winner then the competitors will remain tied All other overall places besides first will remain a tie.

 

The Decathlon scoring system uses either the best throw of an event at that competition or the World Record for that event as 1000 points. All throws are awarded points based on this distance or height. For example: if the best throw in the stone put is 50‚€™-0‚€Ě, then this is worth 1000 points, if another competitor throws 45‚€™-0‚€Ě then this throw is worth 45/50*1000=900 points.  The winner shall be the competitor who has obtained the highest number of points in the over all events, as the case may be.

 

                             Deciding a Tie

                            In the event of a tie, the winner shall be the competitor who in the greater number of events has received more points than the other competitor/competitors tying.  If this does not resolve the tie, the winner shall be the competitor who has the highest number of points in any such events.  This shall apply to ties for any place in the competition.